Pyelonephritis is an infection of the kidney that is usually bacterial in nature. Pyelonephritis can occur in one or both kidneys and is typically due to an infection that started from the bladder and spreads up the ureters to involve the kidney. Another common cause is pyelonephritis that occurs due to an obstruction caused by a urinary stone.
The symptoms of pyelonephritis include severe back pain on the side of the affected kidney in conjunction with a high fever and pain during urination.
Diagnostic tests for Pyelonephritis will require a CT scan for confirmation. The treatment of pyelonephritis is with intravenous antibiotics. Removal of the obstructing stone will be necessary to prevent a recurrence of the infection.
Kidney and Ureteric stones are collectively known as Urinary stones. Urinary stones will cause pain when it causes an obstruction in the kidney or ureter. The pain related to urinary stones are known as Ureteric Colic and this is characteristically a pain that starts from the affected flank leading down to the groin. The pain is usually very severe and can bring the patient down to the hospital rolling in pain. Painful urination and blood in the urine are two other associated symptoms.
Urinary stones can be detected on an X-ray or a CT scan. Small urinary stones can be treated with medical therapy/medications to allow the stone to pass out in the urine. Larger stones will require either external shockwave treatment or formal surgery to fragment and remove the stone.
Kidney tumours can be benign or cancerous in nature. Benign tumours include Angiomyolipomas and cancerous tumours include Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) and Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC).
The symptoms of a Kidney tumour include a long-standing back pain on the side of the affected kidney. Blood in the urine is often associated with cancerous tumours. A CT scan is required for diagnosis and staging for cancerous tumours.
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